At ACR’s 2013 Review Course, as a first-year rheumatology fellow, I sketched quick portraits of the speakers in pen and pencil while they lectured. I hadn’t drawn them since. At this year’s review course in Washington, D.C., I sketched them again, broadening the range of media to watercolor pencil and ink brush pen:
While there, my girlfriend and I were hosted by and visited with dear members of my extended family. We also visited the National Gallery of Art, where Dutch/Flemish drawings for paintings were on display.
The exhibit emphasized the importance of drawings as the basis of paintings. For example, drawings by one artist (Pieter van Laer) were possibly acquired by another (Philips Wouwerman) in stealth so he could base his paintings off of them.
William van de Velde the elder drew a meticulous portrait of the ship, “The Royal Prince,” that was on display alongside a later painting by his son, who used the drawing to help depict a battle at sea.
Other drawings were displayed next to the paintings that resulted from them. It was interesting to see how often portraits (especially noses, which can be particularly difficult to draw) differed from drawing to painting.
In one case, an extremely detailed freehand drawing of the nave of Saint Bavo’s church had incorrect perspective–the arcade at the right of the nave was much lower than at the left and the far windows were too small–which the artist (Pieter Jansz Saenredam) later corrected with ruler and compass for the painting that resulted from the drawing.
What interested me most about the drawings on display was the use of sanguine, or red chalk, on prepared paper. Sanguine, a red-brown iron oxide chalk, “allows for a degree of subtlety and control beyond what [modern chalk equivalents] offer.” It was used for sketches and studies by the “Old Masters,” among them Leonardo and Michelangelo.
A rough modern approximation of chalk is colored pencil. A closer equivalent is probably charcoal or pastel.
However, red chalk appears capable of more subtlety, warmth, and power than colored pencil for quick sketches. It also appears easier to control than charcoal or pastel. I’ve never used it.
Later, in the gift shop, I was not surprised to see that John James Audubon used mixed media in his paintings. For example, his masterpiece of Carolina parakeets was created with watercolor, pastel, crayon, etc., not just transparent watercolor. It’s difficult to convey a lot of detail in focused natural history paintings with transparent watercolor alone. Modern wildlife artists who use watercolor, such as Roger Tory Peterson, use transparent watercolor and acrylic together or just gouache (opaque watercolor) for detailed, scientifically accurate paintings.